Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea
- CUESとは - コトバンク
- 海上衝突回避規範 - Wikipedia (CUES)
- 海上における衝突の予防のための国際規則に関する条約 - Wikipedia (COLREGS)
|CUES||Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea|
|COLREGS||International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972|
|IAMSAR||International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual|
|ICS or INTERCO||International Code of Signals|
|UNCLOS||United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982|
- 1 1.0 導入
- 2 2.0 安全手順
- 2.1 2.1 海上での衝突回避行動
- 2.2 2.2 Breakdown
- 2.3 2.3 Formations and Convoys
- 2.4 2.4 Manoeuvres in Traffic Separation Schemes
- 2.5 2.5 安全な速力
- 2.6 2.6 安全な距離
- 2.7 2.7 Exercises with Submarines
- 2.8 2.8 海軍艦船に求める対策
- 2.9 2.9 Interference with Command and Control Systems
- 2.10 2.10 Notices to Mariners and Airmen
- 3 3.0 通信手順
- 3.1 3.1 海軍航空機への適用性
- 3.2 3.2 音、光、旗りゅう信号
- 3.3 3.3 無線通信
- 3.4 3.4 コールサイン
- 3.5 3.5 音声での手順
- 3.6 3.6 Exchange of Key Information
- 3.7 3.7 Tack Line
- 3.8 3.8 Execution of Voice and Flag Signals
- 3.9 3.9 Delayed Executive Method of Signalling
- 3.10 3.10 Designation (DESIG) Signal
- 3.11 3.11 Time
- 3.12 3.12 Radio Communications Plan
- 4 別紙 A
- 5 脚注
The Western Pacific Naval Symposium (WPNS) 'Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea' (CUES) offers a means by which navies may develop mutually rewarding international cooperation and transparency and provide leadership and broad-based involvement in establishing international standards in relation to the use of the sea. The document is not legally binding; rather, it's a coordinated means of communication to maximise safety at sea.
CUES offers safety measures and a means to limit mutual interference, to limit uncertainty, and to facciliate communication when naval ships or naval aircraft encounter each other in an unplanned manner. Units making programmed contact should use procedures agreed between their national command authorities.
This Document offers safety procedures, a basic communications plan and basic manoeuvring instructions for naval ships and naval aircraft during unplanned encounters at sea.
Where applicable, definitions used in CUES are those definitions found in the 1972 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) and in accordance with international law.
An 'Unplanned Encounter at Sea' occurs when naval ships or naval aircraft of one State meet casually or unexpectedly with a naval ship or naval aircraft of another State.
For the purposes of CUES, a 'naval ship' is a descriptor tha is assumed to include warships, naval auxiliaries, and submarines.
For the purposes of CUES, a 'naval auxiliary' is a vessel, other than a warship, that is owned by or is under the exclusive control of the armed forces of a State and used for the time being on government non-commercial service. Because they are State owned or operated and used for the time being only on government non-commercial service, auxiliary vessels enjoy sovereign immunity.
For the purposes of CUES, a 'naval aircraft' is to include helicopters, fixed wing aircraft and unmanned aerial systems or vehicles.
1.4 Status and Adoption[編集]
WPNS navies that choose to adopt CUES for naval cooperation do so on a voluntary and non-binding basis. This document is also available for implementation by any navy on the same basis. A navy agreeing to utilise CUES or, alternatively, the procedures contained in it, is invited to advise the WPNS Secretariat at the next convenient opportunity.
Nothing in CUES absolves any Comander or Master (as applicable) from the consequences of any neglect of precautions to avoid collision or avoid taking any other course of action that may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen or airmen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
Naval ships and naval aircraft enjoy sovereign immunity and are therefore immune from the jurisdiction of any State other than their flag State. Flag States have exclusive jurisdiction over their sovereign-immune vessels. Any act of interference with a naval ship or naval aircraft is an infringement on the sovereignty of the flag State.
CUES does not supersede international civil aviation rules or rules applicable under international agreements or treaties or international law.
1.6 Arbitration, Consultation and Review[編集]
The WPNS will not arbitrate disputes arising from incidents between naval ships or naval aircraft or from the use of CUES. Consideration of issues of that type are a State responsibility. CUES does not constitute an international agreement or treaty, and as such, is not legally binding under international law.
The WPNS will accept recommendations from any competent source for development of CUES to improve its effectiveness, examine proposals for developing higher levels of safety in maritime operations and for improvemnts to communications. Suggested amendments shold be submitted to the WPNS Secretariat for consideration.
WPNS navies are expected to comply with the 1972 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS).
Any action to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case permit, be positive, made in ample time and with due regard to the observance of good seamanship.
Should a breakdown occur, such as the loss of steering control or failure of main engines, the first requirement is to avoid endangering other ships. Other ships should manoeuvre as necessary to remain clear of the disabled ship. The following steps should be undertaken by the disabled ship as rapidly as possible:
- a) Sound at least six short blasts on the whistle.
- b) By day hoist two black balls. By night show two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best be see.
- c) If turning using rudder or engines or if manoeuvring with engines, indicate the direction of application of engine power.
2.3 Formations and Convoys[編集]
Commanding Officers and Masters (as applicable) should be aware of the danger to all concerned which is caused by single naval ship approaching any vessels in formation or in convoy, so closely as involve risk collision, or attempting to pass ahead of or though a formation or convoy. Single naval ships should adopt early measures to keep out of the way of a formation or convoy.
Although a single naval ship is advised to keep out of the way of a formation or convoy, this does not entitle vessels sailing in formation or convoy to do so without regard to the movements of a single vessel. Naval ships sailing in formation or convoy are to be prepared to take such action as will best avert collision.
Naval ships or formation meeting or operating in the vicinity of other naval ships or formations should avoid manoeurvring in a manner that would hinder the passage of the naval ships or formations encountered.
2.4 Manoeuvres in Traffic Separation Schemes[編集]
Manoeuvres not necessary for safe navigation should not normally be conducted so as to interrupt the flow of traffic through internationally adopted traffic separation schemes.
Every vessel should proceed at a safe speed so that they can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
The unit of distance for the application in CUES is the nautical mile.
Commanding Officers and Masters (as applicable) should at all time maintain a safe separation between their vessel and those of other nations. In determining the "safe distance" between vessels the following factors shall be among those taken into consideration:
- a) the state of visibility;
- b) the traffic density including concerntrations of fishing vessels;
- c) the manoruvrability of both vessels;
- d) the state of wind, sea and current and the proximity of navigational hazards;
- e) reliability of propulsion;
- f) state of training of the crew; and
- g) understanding of the manoeurvring intentions of the other vessel.
- a) 視界の状態
- b) 交通のふくそう状況（漁船その他の船舶の集中を含む。）
- c) 船舶の操縦性能
- d) 風、海面及び海潮流の状態並びに航路障害物との近接状態
- e) 推進力の信頼性
- f) 乗組員の練度
- g) 他の船舶の操縦意図についての理解
2.7 Exercises with Submarines[編集]
When conducting exercises with submarines, surface naval ships should consider the display of the appropriate signals from the International Code of Signals to indicate the presence of submarine(s) in the area.
Commanding Officers or Masters (as applicable) need to consider the potential ramifications before engaging in actions which could be misinterpreted, Actions the prudent commander might generally avoid include:
- a) Simulation of attacks by aiming guns, missiles, fire control radars, torpedo tubes or other weapons in the direction of vessels or aircraft encountered.
- b) Except in cases of distress, the discharge of signal rockets, weapons or other objects in the direction of vessels or aircraft encountered.
- c) Illumination of the navigation bridges or aircraft cockpits.
- d) The use of laser in such a manner as to cause harm to personnel or damage to equipment onboard vessels or aircraft encountered.
- e) Aerobatics and simulated attacks in the vicinity of ships encountered.
- a) 銃、ミサイル、火器管制レーダー、魚雷管または他の武器を遭遇する船舶または航空機の方向に向けることによる攻撃のシミュレーション。
- b) 遭難した場合を除き、信号ロケット、武器または他の物体の船舶または航空機の方向への放出。
- c) 艦橋または航空機のコックピットの照明。
- d) 人体に害を及ぼしたり、遭遇した船舶または航空機に装備された機器に損害を与えるような方法でのレーザーの使用。
- e) 遭遇した船舶の近くでのエアロバティクスと模擬攻撃。
2.9 Interference with Command and Control Systems[編集]
Interference with command and control systems may constitute a safety hazard. If interference is detected, the source should be identified and that station be advised that interference is being experienced and be requested to isolate the source of interference.
2.10 Notices to Mariners and Airmen[編集]
National authorities should provide, through the established system of radio broadcasts and information systems, warnings to mariners and airmen of any maritime activity that might represent a danger to navigation or to aircraft in flight.
Naval aircraft should comply with the communications procedures set out in this document of the extent that they are able. Naval aircraft will not normally use the signal groups provided but, instead, will comply with international protocols applicable to air navigation.
When naval ships are operating in sight of one another or in restricted visibility, such signals (flags, light, sound) as are prescribed in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea should be used signal intentions related to manoeuvres being undertaken in accordance with those Regulations.
When using flag signals from the International Code of Signals (ICS) for communications between warshisps, the CODE pennant should be used to indicate the source of those signals.
So that communications between naval ships and naval aircraft during unplanned encounters at sea are established in a timely manner and for reasons of efficiency radio communications are the preferred method of communicating information contained in CUES.
Individual ship call signs will be ship NAME, or HULL NUMBER, or INTERNATIONAL RADIO SIGNAL CALLSIGN. Aircraft call signs will be the aircraft INTERNATIONAL RADIO SIGNAL CALLSIGN. Ships and aircraft should also identify their nationality.
個々の艦船のコールサインは、船の名前、船体番号、または国際無線信号のコールサインとする。 航空機のコールサインは、航空機の国際無線信号コールサインとする。 艦船や航空機は国籍も摘示しなければならない。
Where the call sign of the platform being called is unknown, it should be addressed as UNKNOWN STATION with sufficient supplementary information, for example position course and speed, to alert the station that it is being called. Units called as UNKNOWN STATION should answer using their INTERNATIONAL RADIO SIGNAL CALLSIGN.
All voice communications should be conducted in ENGLISH unless otherwise agreed upon.
All messages are to include:
- a) Addressee(s). The comand or commands for whom the message is intended.
- b) Originator. Standard terminology THIS IS followed by thw INTERNATIONAL RADIO SIGNAL CALLSIGN is to be used to indicate the message originator's identily.
- c) Text. The message being send, using the Selected Signals Vocabulary where possible.
- d) Over. An invitation to transmit.
- e) Out. When no reply is required.
3.6 Exchange of Key Information[編集]
In the interest of safety, on making initial contact, and after exchanging identities, Commanding Officers or Masters (as applicable) may elect to deconflict movement and operations by exchanging key elements of information between forces. This information may include unit position and current manoeuvring intentions, when appropriate. The decision to exchange data is left to the Commanding Officer or Master (as applicable) and nothing in this code is meant to imply that information exchange is required.
3.7 Tack Line[編集]
The tack line is transmitted and spoken as TACK and written as a dash. it is used:
- a) To avoid ambiguity by separating signals or groups of numbers which if not separated could convey a different meaning to that intended, for example G Corpen 000-10.
- b) When required by a particular signal, for example AV 26-3
3.8 Execution of Voice and Flag Signals[編集]
Signals may be executed by time or by the delayed executive method.
When not using the delayed executive method, a time group inserted after the text indicates that the action is to be taken upon receipt, for example TA 89 TACK Time 2120 ZULU.
When action is to be commenced or completed at a future time and without further orders, a "T" group is to be included in the text, for example TA 89 TACK TANGO 2145 ZULU TACK Time 2120 ZULU.
3.9 Delayed Executive Method of Signalling[編集]
When using tactical signal groups from the Selected Signals Vocabulary and it is intended that they be carried out by executive order, the delayed executive method is to be used, leaving sufficient time available for decode to occur in receiving stations. The text is to be repeated during each transmission.
Preliminary. The text of the first transmission of a tactical signal group is to be prefixed with the words EXECUTE TO FOLLOW which is to be followed by the tactical group. For example: Execute follow TURN PORT 270 I say again TURN PORT 270.
Executive. The text of the executive transmission of a tactical signal group is to be followed by the words STANDBY EXECUTE. For example: TURN PORT 270 Standby Execute I say again TURN PORT 270 Standby Execute.
3.10 Designation (DESIG) Signal[編集]
The DESIG signal is used to describe own or other forces or to indicate that the information that follows is not a signal group and is to be interpreted as spoken.
For the purpose of CUES, times are expressed as four numbers; the first two numbers denote the hour (00-23) and the second two the minutes past the hour (00-59). Also for the purposes of CUES time is expressed as ZULU.
The letter "T" (pronounced TANG GO) is used to indicate time in a signal and is positioned as follows:
- a) "T" preceding numbers signifies that action is to (or will) commence at that time, for example T2030;
- b) "T" following numbers signifies that actions is to (or will) be completed at that time, forexample 2130T;
- c) Number groups before and after "T" signify that action is to occue between the time indicated, for example 2030T2130; and
- d) When a signal group consists of only "T" and foue numbers, it is a time check, forexample T2330.
3.12 Radio Communications Plan[編集]
3.12.1 Shio to ship[編集]
|Calling||VHF Channel 16 (156.8 Mhz)||HF 2182 KHz|
|Working||As agreed upon establishing communications||As agreed upon establishing communications|
|Calling||VHF 121.5 or 243MHz||HF 3023 KHz or VHF 123.45|
|Working||HF 3023 KHz or As agreed upon establishing communications||HF 5680 Khz or As agreed upon establishing communications|
|Calling||156.8 MHz (VHF Channel 16) or VHF 121.5 or 243 MHz||HF 2023 KHz or VHF 123.45|
|Working||As agreed upon establishing communications||As agreed upon establishing communications|
When naval aircraft are operating in civil airspace or Outside Control Terminal Airspace, a designated area working frequency will be available. When naval aircraft are working within restricted airspace, the controller of that airspace will have a designated working frequency.
ELECTED SIGNAL VOCABULARY AND BASIC MANOEUVRING INSTRUCTIONS
CAUTION: IN THE INTERESTS OF SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY, IT IS NOT NECESSARY THAT THESE GROUPS BE USED FOR COMMUNICATIONS PURPOSES
Single Letter Meanings[編集]
These signals are not to be confused with the International Code of Signals.
|CODE WORD||PRONUNCIATION||SINGLE LETTER MEANING|
|The bold-faced syllables are stressed|
|USED IN ALL SIGNALLING||USED IN ALL SIGNALLING||WHEN SPOKEN OVER RADIO CIRCUITS, PRECEDED BY "FLAG" TO INDICATE SINGLE LETTER MEANING|
|A||Alfa||AL FAH||Divers or friendly explosive ordnance personnel down|
|B||Bravo||BRAV VOH||Weapon practicve|
Fuelling or transferring explosives or inflammable materials
|C||Charlie||CHAR LEE (or SHAR LEE)||Affirmative, yes or permission granted|
|F||Foxtrot||FOKS TROT||Flight operations|
|I||India||IN DEE AH|
|J||Juliett||JEW LEE ETT|
|N||November||NO VEM BER|
|O||Oscar||OSS CAH||Man overboard|
|R||Romeo||ROW ME OH|
|S||Sierra||SEE AIR RAH|
|U||Uniform||YOU NEE FORM (or OO NEE FORM)|
I have a breakdown or am not under control
Idenrtifying flag for towing operations
|°||DECIMAL POINT||DAY SEE MAL||Decimal point|
|INT||INTERROGATIVE||INT AIR OG AH TEEV||Signal not understood|
|Emergency Alarm Signals|
|EMERGENCY (000 to 359)||Attention is drawn to danger or emergency on true bearing ..... from this ship or ship indicated.|
|EMERGENCY (PORT or STARBOARD)(0 to 18)||Attention is called to danger or emergency on relative bearing indicated in tens of degrees from this ship or ship indicated.|
|EMERGENCY C||Collision course. You are on a collision course with me. Keep clear.|
|EMERGENCY D||Collision. This ship or ship indicated has been in a collision|
|EMERGENCY F||I have an aircraft landing in an emergency|
|EMERGENCY H||Helicopter Emergency. I have a helicopter landing in an emergency.|
|EMERGENCY P||Fire. This ship or ship indicated has a fire on board (of type ...)
|EMERGENCY U||Danger. You are standing into danger|
|Emergency Action Signals|
|EMERGENCY 1||Avoiding action. Take individual avoiding action.|
|EMERGENCY 4||Cease fire. Do not fire.|
|CODE NE2||Any ship||You should proceed with great caution; submarines are exercising in this area|
Submarine Pyrotechnic Signals[編集]
|RED Grenade or Emergency Identification Signal||Emergency. Submarine in serious trouble and will surface immediately if possible. Ships are to clear the area immediately and stand by to render assistance.|
|YELLOW or WHITE smoke or flare||Submarine coming to the surface or periscope depth. Ships are to clear the immediate vicinity and maintain cavitation speed.|
|GREEN flare||Submarine simulated attack signal.|
|NOTE: If an UNEXPECTED signal other than GREEN is sighted by ASW units, the are to anticipate an emergency surfacing.|
|BA||Actions is being carried out (or I am)|
|BB||Action completed (or I have)|
|BD||Report time you will be ready (to ...)|
|BE||Report when ready (to ...)|
|BF||Ready (to ...) (at ...)|
|BG||My present intention is to ...|
|BI||Action is not being carried out (or I am not)|
|BJ||If you desire|
|BK||When you desire|
|BU||Unable (to ...)|
|BX||Indicates the end of a series of groups governed by governing group.|
Tactical Signal Groups[編集]
|FORM (FORMATION) SIGNALS|
|FORM (PORT OT STARBOARD) (0 to 18)|
|FORM (000 to 359)|
- UNCLOS Article 29.
- See e.g. The San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea at 13(h) (Louise Dowwald-Back ed., 1995); The Convention regarding the Regime of the Straits (Montreux Concention 1936)
- COLREGS Rule 2(a)
- COLREGS Rule 8(a)
- 千九百七十二年の海上衝突予防条約 第8条 (a) と同文
- COLREGS Rule 27(a)
- COLREGS Rule 34 (a) and (b)
- COLREGS Rule 10
- COLREGS Rule 6